IGFALS gene dosage effects on serum IGF-I and glucose metabolism, body composition, bone growth in length and width, and the pharmacokinetics of recombinant human IGF-I administration.
Högler W., Martin DD., Crabtree N., Nightingale P., Tomlinson J., Metherell L., Rosenfeld R., Hwa V., Rose S., Walker J., Shaw N., Barrett T., Frystyk J.
CONTEXT: Acid labile subunit (ALS) deficiency, caused by IGFALS mutations, is a subtype of primary IGF-I deficiency (PIGFD) and has been associated with insulin resistance (IR) and osteopenia. Whether patients respond to recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I) is unknown. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: This study determined the 14-hour pharmacokinetic response of free and total IGF-I and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) to a single sc dose of rhIGF-I (120 μg/kg) in four ALS-deficient patients, compared with severe PIGFD, moderate PIGFD, and controls. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests, fasting blood levels, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and metacarpal radiogrammetry were performed in the four patients and 12 heterozygous family members. RESULTS: IGF-I and IGFBP-3 increased above baseline (P < .05) for 2.5 hours, returning to baseline 7 hours after rhIGF-I injection. Mean (SD) IGF-I Z-score increased by 2.49 (0.90), whereas IGFBP-3 Z-score increased by 0.57 (0.10) only. IGF-I elimination rates in ALS deficiency were similar, but the IGF-I increment was lower than those for severe PIGFD. Significant gene dosage effects were found for all IGF-I peptides, height, forearm muscle size, and metacarpal width. Bone analysis showed that ALS deficiency creates a phenotype of slender bones with normal size-corrected density. Abnormal glucose handling and IR was found in three of four patients and 6 of 12 carriers. CONCLUSIONS: These gene dosage effects demonstrate that one functional IGFALS allele is insufficient to maintain normal ALS levels, endocrine IGF-I action, full growth potential, muscle size, and periosteal expansion. Similar gene dosage effects may exist for parameters of IR. Despite similar IGF-I elimination compared with severe PIGFD, ALS-deficient patients cannot mount a similar response. Alternative ways of rhIGF-I administration should be sought.