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This work demonstrates that transgenic mice lacking both rod and cone photoreceptors (rd/rd cl) retain a pupillary light reflex (PLR) that does not rely on local iris photoreceptors. These data, combined with previous reports that rodless and coneless mice show circadian and pineal responses to light, suggest that multiple non-image-forming light responses use non-rod, non-cone ocular photoreceptors in mice. An action spectrum for the PLR in rd/rd cl mice demonstrates that over the range 420-625 nm, this response is driven by a single opsin/vitamin A-based photopigment with peak sensitivity around 479 nm (opsin photopigment/OP479). These data represent the first functional characterization of a non-rod, non-cone photoreceptive system in the mammalian CNS.

Original publication




Journal article


Nat Neurosci

Publication Date





621 - 626


Animals, Circadian Rhythm, Genotype, Light, Mice, Mice, Inbred C3H, Mice, Mutant Strains, Mice, Transgenic, Photic Stimulation, Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate, Pineal Gland, Reflex, Pupillary, Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells, Retinal Pigments, Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells, Rod Opsins, Vitamin A