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BACKGROUND: Symptoms of insomnia are common and might impact work productivity. We investigated the relationship between insomnia symptoms and workplace productivity in a global manufacturing company. METHODS: Within an uncontrolled, cross-sectional study, employees from a US-based company were invited to participate in an online evaluation comprising the Sleep Condition Indicator (SCI) measuring symptoms of insomnia (high score indicating better sleep), 2 items of the Work Productivity and Impairment Index (WPAI) measuring 'presenteeism' and 'absenteeism' (high score indicating loss of work productivity) and 1 item of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) from January 2015 onwards. Pre-post, within-subject data were collected to preliminary test effects of 'sleep tips' and digital cognitive behavioral therapy (dCBT). RESULTS: In 2798 employees [72% male; mean age 46.3(SD11.8) yrs] sleep was poorest in plant staff [SCI = 3.70(2.73)], then retail staff [4.34(3.02)], then office staff [4.95(2.83): overall F(2,2786) = 43.7, P < .0001]. More insomnia symptoms were associated with WPAI presenteeism (r = -.489, P < .0001; R2 = 23.9%). Insomnia symptoms also were the strongest predictor of work-related productivity, with stress only contributing a further 9%. A regression model for 'absenteeism' was statistically significant but of limited predictive value (R2 = 3.4%). In a sample of 214 employees with pre- and post-intervention data, the SCI of those exposed to sleep tips significantly increased from 5.36(3.28) to 6.01(3.22), [t(123) = -3.02, P = .003] and from 3.08(2.24) to 6.03(2.97) for those who accessed dCBT [t(89) = -8.40, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Symptoms of insomnia are associated with poor work productivity. Additionally, targeted insomnia interventions may offer potential to improve sleep and work productivity.

Original publication




Journal article


Sleep Health

Publication Date





307 - 312


Insomnia, Occupational health, Sleep, Work productivity, Adult, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Cross-Sectional Studies, Efficiency, Female, Humans, Internationality, Male, Manufacturing Industry, Middle Aged, Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders, Treatment Outcome, Work