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The photopigment melanopsin supports reflexive visual functions in people, such as pupil constriction and circadian photoentrainment. What contribution melanopsin makes to conscious visual perception is less studied. We devised a stimulus that targeted melanopsin separately from the cones using pulsed (3-s) spectral modulations around a photopic background. Pupillometry confirmed that the melanopsin stimulus evokes a response different from that produced by cone stimulation. In each of four subjects, a functional MRI response in area V1 was found. This response scaled with melanopic contrast and was not easily explained by imprecision in the silencing of the cones. Twenty additional subjects then observed melanopsin pulses and provided a structured rating of the perceptual experience. Melanopsin stimulation was described as an unpleasant, blurry, minimal brightening that quickly faded. We conclude that isolated stimulation of melanopsin is likely associated with a response within the cortical visual pathway and with an evoked conscious percept.

Original publication




Journal article


Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A

Publication Date





12291 - 12296


fMRI, ipRGCs, melanopsin, vision, visual cortex, Adult, Color Vision, Female, Humans, Light, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Male, Middle Aged, Photic Stimulation, Pupil, Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells, Retinal Ganglion Cells, Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells, Rod Opsins, Visual Cortex, Visual Pathways, Visual Perception