Sleep physiology and disorders
Narayan O., Sinha A., Ibrahim R., Kadam S., Hill E.
There is a paucity of data on neonatal sleep physiology, normative data and disorders. Newborns spend more than half of their sleep time in stage R (rapid eye movement) sleep. Sleep is an integral part of an infant’s development, leading to adequate growth and memory consolidation. Circadian rhythm is established by ~6 months of age. Hypopnoeas and apnoeas are common in infants, and the mean apnoea/hypopnoea index is higher in healthy newborns than in older children. Fragmented sleep in the neonatal period causes endothelial dysfunction and can lead to a poor neurodevelopmental outcome. Various sleep problems can occur throughout infancy, and preterm infants are more vulnerable than term infants.