Aneuploidy effects on human gene expression across three cell types.
Liu S., Akula N., Reardon PK., Russ J., Torres E., Clasen LS., Blumenthal J., Lalonde F., McMahon FJ., Szele F., Disteche CM., Cader MZ., Raznahan A.
Aneuploidy syndromes impact multiple organ systems but understanding of tissue-specific aneuploidy effects remains limited-especially for the comparison between peripheral tissues and relatively inaccessible tissues like brain. Here, we address this gap in knowledge by studying the transcriptomic effects of chromosome X, Y, and 21 aneuploidies in lymphoblastoid cell lines, fibroblasts and iPSC-derived neuronal cells (LCLs, FCL, and iNs, respectively). We root our analyses in sex chromosome aneuploidies, which offer a uniquely wide karyotype range for dosage effect analysis. We first harness a large LCL RNA-seq dataset from 197 individuals with one of 6 sex chromosome dosages (SCDs: XX, XXX, XY, XXY, XYY, and XXYY) to i) validate theoretical models of SCD sensitivity and ii) define an expanded set of 41 genes that show obligate dosage sensitivity to SCD and are all in cis (i.e., reside on the X or Y chromosome). We then use multiple complementary analyses to show that cis effects of SCD in LCLs are preserved in both FCLs (n = 32) and iNs (n = 24), whereas trans effects (i.e., those on autosomal gene expression) are mostly not preserved. Analysis of additional datasets confirms that the greater cross-cell type reproducibility of cis vs. trans effects is also seen in trisomy 21 cell lines. These findings i) expand our understanding of X, Y, and 21 chromosome dosage effects on human gene expression and ii) suggest that LCLs may provide a good model system for understanding cis effects of aneuploidy in harder-to-access cell types.