Peripheral myeloid cells contribute to brain injury in male neonatal mice.
Smith PLP., Mottahedin A., Svedin P., Mohn C-J., Hagberg H., Ek J., Mallard C.
BACKGROUND: Neonatal brain injury is increasingly understood to be linked to inflammatory processes that involve specialised CNS and peripheral immune interactions. However, the role of peripheral myeloid cells in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury remains to be fully investigated. METHODS: We employed the Lys-EGFP-ki mouse that allows enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-positive mature myeloid cells of peripheral origin to be easily identified in the CNS. Using both flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, we investigated the accumulation of total EGFP+ myeloid cells and myeloid cell subtypes: inflammatory monocytes, resident monocytes and granulocytes, in the CNS for several weeks following induction of cerebral HI in postnatal day 9 mice. We used antibody treatment to curb brain infiltration of myeloid cells and subsequently evaluated HI-induced brain injury. RESULTS: We demonstrate a temporally biphasic pattern of inflammatory monocyte and granulocyte infiltration, characterised by peak infiltration at 1 day and 7 days after hypoxia-ischemia. This occurs against a backdrop of continuous low-level resident monocyte infiltration. Antibody-mediated depletion of circulating myeloid cells reduced immune cell accumulation in the brain and reduced neuronal loss in male but not female mice. CONCLUSION: This study offers new insight into sex-dependent central-peripheral immune communication following neonatal brain injury and merits renewed interest in the roles of granulocytes and monocytes in lesion development.