Increased central adiposity and decreased subcutaneous adipose tissue 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 are associated with deterioration in glucose tolerance-A longitudinal cohort study.
Crowley RK., Woods CP., Hughes BA., Gray J., McCarthy T., Taylor AE., Gathercole LL., Shackleton CHL., Crabtree N., Arlt W., Stewart PM., Tomlinson JW.
OBJECTIVE AND CONTEXT: Increasing adiposity, ageing and tissue-specific regeneration of cortisol through the activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 have been associated with deterioration in glucose tolerance. We undertook a longitudinal, prospective clinical study to determine if alterations in local glucocorticoid metabolism track with changes in glucose tolerance. DESIGN, PATIENTS, AND MEASUREMENTS: Sixty-five overweight/obese individuals (mean age 50.3 ± 7.3 years) underwent oral glucose tolerance testing, body composition assessment, subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy and urinary steroid metabolite analysis annually for up to 5 years. Participants were categorized into those in whom glucose tolerance deteriorated ("deteriorators") or improved ("improvers"). RESULTS: Deteriorating glucose tolerance was associated with increasing total and trunk fat mass and increased subcutaneous adipose tissue expression of lipogenic genes. Subcutaneous adipose tissue 11β-HSD1 gene expression decreased in deteriorators, and at study completion, it was highest in the improvers. There was a significant negative correlation between change in area under the curve glucose and 11β-HSD1 expression. Global 11β-HSD1 activity did not change and was not different between deteriorators and improvers at baseline or follow-up. CONCLUSION: Longitudinal deterioration in metabolic phenotype is not associated with increased 11β-HSD1 activity, but decreased subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression. These changes may represent a compensatory mechanism to decrease local glucocorticoid exposure in the face of an adverse metabolic phenotype.