Tuberculosis vaccines: current status and future prospects.
Fletcher H., McShane H.
There is an urgent need to develop more effective tuberculosis vaccines as chemotherapy and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) have failed to control the current epidemic. BCG does have some protective effect in childhood, so using a second vaccine to boost BCG would be the most ethical and logistically feasible strategy. The cost of tuberculosis efficacy trials will be high and return on investment into the development of a tuberculosis vaccine will be low. Incentives such as orphan drug status could encourage industrial interest. As more vaccines enter into early clinical trials, there is an urgent need for the identification of correlates of protection to aid decisions about which vaccines should go forward into efficacy testing. Research efforts that focus on reducing the cost and risk of conducting clinical trials will be of direct benefit to tuberculosis vaccine development.