Possible mediators of metabolic endotoxemia in women with obesity and women with obesity-diabetes in The Gambia.
Jobe M., Agbla SC., Todorcevic M., Darboe B., Danso E., de Barros J-PP., Lagrost L., Karpe F., Prentice AM.
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Translocation of bacterial debris from the gut causes metabolic endotoxemia (ME) that results in insulin resistance, and may be on the causal pathway to obesity-related type 2 diabetes. To guide interventions against ME we tested two hypothesised mechanisms for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ingress: a leaky gut and chylomicron-associated transfer following a high-fat meal. METHODS: In lean women (n = 48; fat mass index (FMI) 9.6 kg/m2), women with obesity (n = 62; FMI 23.6 kg/m2) and women with obesity-diabetes (n = 38; FMI 24.9 kg/m2) we used the lactulose-mannitol dual-sugar permeability test (LM ratio) to assess gut integrity. Markers of ME (LPS, EndoCAb IgG and IgM, IL-6, CD14 and lipoprotein binding protein) were assessed at baseline, 2 h and 5 h after a standardised 49 g fat-containing mixed meal. mRNA expression of markers of inflammation, macrophage activation and lipid metabolism were measured in peri-umbilical adipose tissue (AT) biopsies. RESULTS: The LM ratio did not differ between groups. LPS levels were 57% higher in the obesity-diabetes group (P