The costs of bipolar disorder in the United Kingdom.
Simon J., Pari AAA., Wolstenholme J., Berger M., Goodwin GM., Geddes JR.
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the individual cost and population-level economic burden of Bipolar Disorder (BD), and explore the impact of clinical and sociodemographic factors on costs in the United Kingdom. METHODS: Annual UK health care, social care and societal cost data were collected from a prospective cohort of 91 BD patients using digital monitoring of symptoms. Costs (in £) were calculated for the year of resource use collection (2010-2011) and main results inflated to year 2018-2019. A Generalized Estimating Equation framework was used to investigate individual factors influencing costs. An economic burden estimate was derived by multiplying the mean annual cost per patient with literature-based population prevalence. RESULTS: The average annual cost of BD per patient was £12,617 (SE = ±£1085) or £14,938 (SE = ±£1281) at 2018-2019 prices with 68% of the total costs attributed to lost productivity and informal care, 31% to health care costs, 1% to private out-of-pocket expenses, and 0.5% to social care costs. A unit increase in average levels of depressive or manic symptoms were associated with 7% and 11% higher societal costs, respectively. The estimated annual prevalence of BD in the United Kingdom was 0.8% resulting in a population-level economic burden estimate of £5.1 billion for 2010-2011 or £6.43 billion for 2018-2019. CONCLUSIONS: BD is a disease of substantial costs in the United Kingdom with the majority of the economic burden falling outside the health care system in the form of productivity losses and informal care. These costs highly correlate with patient outcomes highlighting further needs for improved treatment efforts into functionality.